Farming is one of the oldest businesses in the world from the time of using leg to kill grass to using crude tool like cutlass and now using machine.
As a business it has been a major source of income for many people in Africa especially Nigeria and it will be a good thing if farmer can learn more about their occupation.
This article do justice to that by providing more knowledge on types of faming so that farmer can chose the one best suitable for them, including types of farming system and types of farmer in Nigeria to see where group they belong as a farmer.
Types of farming system in Nigeria
Below are the types of farming system in Nigeria
- Sole cropping farming system
- Mixed farming system
- Silvopastoral system
- Tree crop farming system
- Root crop farming system
- Irrigated farming system
- Urban and Peri urban farming system
- Extensive system (livestock)
- Semi intensive system (livestock)
- Intensive system (livestock)
1) Sole cropping farming system
In this type of farming system farmer planted only one type of crop such as maize or beans. All his or her effort is gear towards the yield of single crop and this make the crop to come out good since all the nutrient of the land is gear towards its.
The only problem is that if the land use is not suitable for that particular sole crop it will be a disaster that is why a farmer needs to make soil analysis before planting on any land.
Farmer focus on one plant which increases the yield
There is no competition for the crop
Can be mechanized
- It is risky
- It can be boring sometimes
- Hard to find a suitable land
2) Mixed farming system
In this system farmer focus is spread on both crop and animal, as he tends to animal he also tends to crop.
This system has a lot of advantages and one of them is the ability to apply manure coming from animal to plant and ability to feed animal with plant residue.
- Farmer can spread the risk
- No wastage
Farmer has two options to choose
- The crop can be easily mechanized
- There is spread of focus which decreases crop yield
- If the livestock are not camp well they may destroy the crop yield
3) Silvopastoral system
Silvopastoral system of farming deal with planting crop alongside grasses and shrub where animal can feed on. Silvopastoral prevent the trampling of crop that can happen to mixed farming, and also provide all time food for animal.
- It is less costly to feed the animal
- Farmer can spread the risk
- No wastage
- It cannot be mechanized
- Focus is spread on many things
- If the shrub or grasses are not planted well, they may start competing with the main crop
4) Tree crop farming system
In this farming system money crop such as Oil palm, Cocoa, Cashew, Mahogany, Opepe are planted for the purpose of making money from it at a future date.
This crop are mostly called cash crop because of huge amount of money that associated with selling the produce from the tree or the tree itself.
Famer can focus on it alone or combine it with food crop like maize and cocoyam pending the time the tree crop will mature.
- Famer can become wealthy
- It can be planted with food crop
- It takes time to get result at least two years.
5) Root crop farming system
Here farmer focus is only on root crop such as cassava and cocoyam. It is a good system of farming if farmer secure a suitable land and reside in the south because this where people eat root crop.
- Farmer can practice crop rotation
- Famer has a focus
- It can be mechanized
- It can be weed with chemical
The soil will attract pest and dieses peculiar to only root crop
6) Irrigated farming system
In this system famer employ the use of irrigation to water his or her crop. This is predominant in the north where there are little or no water and in the south during dry season.
Irrigated systems involve connecting holes to a river or dam and drawing it back to farm with a pumping machine that will draw the water. It is a better system of farming since it makes it possible for farming to be done at any time.
- Farmer makes a lot of money during dry season
- Famer can plant at anytime
- It is costly to maintain
- It requires huge amount of money and labor to setup
7) Peri urban and urban system of faming
Peri urban farming system is a new system of farming where farmer utilize the nutrient portion of the urban outskirt to plant, while urban system of farming involve planting in a flask, earthen pot and putting it on a roof top.
Both are brilliant way of farming, it requires little effort and farmer does not have to forego the lives of the city.
8) Extensive system of farming
This is for livestock farmer. In this system animal are allow to roam freely and little care is given to them, as a result they produce small meat. It is not good for commercial farming
9) Semi in intensive system
This is the middle ground between intensive system of farming and extensive. Livestock here are provided with little care usually inside fenced area. This system can be easily combined with sole cropping system and silvopastoral system.
10) Intensive system
Here, livestock are well taken care of and mostly they are feed and water inside a housed. This is best for commercial livestock production but it is costly to set up and manage.
Types of farming in Nigeria (most profitable / lucrative)
Below are the types of farming in Nigeria
- Maize farming
- Rice farming
- Cassava farming
- Pineapple farming
- Beans farming
- Plantain farming
- Poultry farming
- Goat and sheep farming
- Fish farming
1) Maize farming
Maize is a common crop in Nigeria; it uses spread over many miles which make it in high demand.
Maize is usually planted only at the onset and middle of raining season but with the help of irrigation, it can now be planted anytime and anywhere in Nigeria. It can be mechanize and require less labor
2) Rice farming
Before, it is difficult to embark on rice farming in Nigeria because of it required soil nutrient and water but now with the help of irrigation and soil analysis rice can now be planted in many state in Nigeria.
It is a stable food therefore always in high demand and its potential is not limited to local consumption it can also be exported.
3) Cassava farming
Cassava is another lucrative crop in Nigeria and the reason is not farfetched, it can be turn into many foods such as garri, fufu, and elubo.
It is mostly planted in the south due to its soil and water requirement. It is also in high demand which means it command premium price in the market.
4) Pineapple farming
Pineapple farming is very lucrative but requires expertise. You can’t start it without the know how if you don’t want disease and pest to reap you off but if you manage to pull it off you are in money as pineapple is always in demand.
5) Beans farming
This is mostly planted in the north. It is also in high demand in Nigeria. Beans comes in deferent colour such as white, red, and brown. Beans farming is like an industry on its own with different sector such as beans distribution, beans farming, beans wholesaler and beans retailer.
6) Plantain farming
Plantain is a South crop because it require large amount of water than can only be gotten through steady rain. It is also lucrative and high in demand.
An acre of plantain can turn a famer into a millionaire and do you know what it does not require too much of labor.
7) Goat and sheep farming
Goat and sheep are like five and six they go well together in rearing. Although it is lucrative farmer needs to have knowledge of how thing is been done to avoid loss of capital remember you are dealing with lives and there is always uncertainty around it.
8) Poultry farming
This is the most profitable in livestock production. It is a name that encompasses many breeds/species of birds such as broiler, layers, noilers, cockerel, quail, duck, geese and turkey.
If done well it can turn farmer into a millionaire within the shortest possible time but be warn it comes with risk.
9) Fish farming
Fish farming is another lucrative farming in Nigeria. If the feed can be acted upon there is a huge profit to be made.
Fish farming can be done anywhere in Nigeria, gone are the days where you have to dig a pond, you can now use concrete and tarpaulin ponds
Types of farmer in Nigeria
Below are the types of farmer in Nigeria.
This classification is based on the land available to them
1) Marginal holder farmer
These are farmer that plant on small piece of land usually a plot. They are not a commercial farmer, they are doing it to feed their family since they have other job at hand. These farmers are urban dweller who utilized urban outskirt.
2) Small holder farmer
Small holder farmer are the junior of marginal holder they also utilize small piece of land but more than the marginal holder.
These ones are also not commercial farmer they are in it mostly due to loss of job. They also utilize outskirt of the city and roof top
3) Medium holder farmer
Medium farmer are commercial farmer. They take farming as their daily job and therefore plant on many acres of land but with crude tools and implement which hinder their yield.
They do not have facility to store their produce therefore they sell all of the produce the day they harvest it.
4) Large holder farmer
Larger farmer are also called mechanized farmer they use machine to weed plant and harvest it. They farm on many hectares of land and require large amount of money and capital.
Large holder farmer has capital therefore use high end storage and sometimes they may go into processing which is more profitable.
If you are aiming to become commercial farmer you need to up you game to move to medium farmer or large farmer.